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Hari ibimenyetso ‘bikomeye’ byerekana ko habaho ubundi bwoko bw’ingufu

Kuva kuri sumaku (aimant/magnet) ifata ku cyuma kugeza ku kujugunya umupira wa basketball mu nkangara, ingufu z’ubugenge (physics) ziba mu buzima bwacu bwa buri kanya.

Izi ngufu zose tubona buri munsi zigabanywa mu bwoko bune: ingufu za rukuruzi, iza electromagnetism, ingufu zikomeye n’ingufu zoroshye.

Ubu, abahanga mu bugenge bavuga ko babonye ibimenyetso ko hari ubundi bwoko bw’ingufu shingiro z’ibidukikije (nature).

Ibi byabonetse mu bushakashatsi bwakorewe muri laboratoire iri hafi y’umujyi wa Chicago muri Amerika. Ayo moko ane y’ingufu shingiro agena uburyo ibintu byose n’ibibigize mu isanzure bikorana. Urugero, ingufu rukuruzi z’isi zimanura ibintu byose ku butaka, maze ibintu biremereye bikamera nk’aho biteye ku butaka.

Ikigo Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) cy’Ubwongereza kivuga ko ibyavuye muri ubu bushakashatsi “bitanga ibimenyetso bikomeye ko hariho uduce tw’ingufu (particles) tutaravumburwa cyangwa se izindi ngufu nshya”.

Ariko ibyavuye muri ubu bushakashatsi bwa Muon g-2 ntabwo bigera ku buvumbuzi bwa nyabwo.

Ubu, hari amahirwe ya rimwe ku 40,000 ko ibyo babonye byaba uruhurirane rw’ikintu gishya kivumbuwe – mu gipimo cyijyanye n’ibi by’ubugenge bingana na 4.1 sigma.

Urugero rwa 5 sigma nirwo ruba rukenewe ngo hemezwe ubuvumbuzi.

Prof Mark Lancaster, wari ukuriye ubu bushakashatsi, yabwiye BBC ati: “Twabonye ko imikoranire y’utugize ibintu tw’ifatizo (muons) tunyuranye n’uburyo busanzwe [Standard Model] – uburyo bwemewe henshi ku isi bwo gusobanura uko ibigize isanzure byifashe”

Uyu mushakashatsi yongeraho ati: “Biraboneka ko ari ibintu bitangaje kuko biraganisha kuri ejo hazaza h’amategeko mashya y’ubugenge, ibigize ibintu bishya n’ingufu nshya tutarabona kugeza ubu.”

Ibyabonetse ni ibishya bikurikira ubundi bushakashatsi ku tuntu fatizo (particles) tugize ibintu bwakozwe muri Amerika, Ubuyapani, na vuba aha kuri Large Hadron Collider ku mupaka w’Ubufaransa n’Ubusuwisi.

Large Hadron Collider ni imashini y’ubushakashatsi yubakiwe ku ntera ya 175m munsi y’ubutaka ku mupaka w’Ubufaransa n’Ubusuwisi, niyo mashini nini cyane ku isi, ikorerwamo ubushakashatsi mu bugenge bwo guhuza uduce dutoya tugize ibintu.

Fermilab

Laboratoire ya Femilab iri ku buso bwa hegitari 2,700 hafi ya Chicago niyo ya mbere muri Amerika yiga ku duce duto tugize ibintu mu bugenge

Prof Ben Allanach, wo muri kaminuza ya Cambridge, wakoze muri ubu bushakashatsi buheruka, ati: “Ibitekerezo byanjye birambwira ko ibi bizaba byo.

Ati: “Mu kazi kanjye kose narebaga ingufu n’ibizigize birenze ibyo dusanzwe tuzi, none dore ngibi. Iki nicyo gihe nategereje kandi ubu si nsinzira neza kuko mfite amashyushyu menshi.”

Ubu bushakashatsi, bushingiye muri Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) i Batavia, Illinois muri Amerika, bushakisha ‘phenomena’ nshya mu bugenge bwiga ku myifatire y’uduce duto tw’ingufu twitwa ‘muons’.

Hari uduce tugize isi yacu dutoya ndetse munsi ya atome. Tumwe muri utwo duce dutoya natwo tugizwe n’utundi dutoya kurushaho tutagabanywamo ibindi bice ngo haboneke uduce fatizo tw’ikintu.

‘Muon’ ni kamwe muri utwo duce fatizo, imeze kimwe na electron, ariko iyikubye inshuro 200 mu buremere.

Ubushakashatsi bwiswe Muon g-2 bwarimo kuzungurutsa ‘muons’ ku cyuma cy’ishusho y’impeta cya 14m maze bishyirwa ahantu hari imbaraga za rukuruzi. Mu mategeko asanzwe y’ubugenge, akubiye mu kitwa Standard Model, ibi byari gutuma muons zinyeganyega ku rugero runaka rutoya.

Ariko, abahanga muri siyansi babonye ko muons zinyeganyeje vuba vuba ku kigero kitari cyitezwe. Ibi bishobora kuba biterwa n’ubundi bwoko bw’ingufu z’ibidukikije butari buzwi na siyansi.

Kugeza ubu nta muntu uzi ibyo izi ngufu zishobora kuba ari nshya zikora, uretse ibi zakoze kuri muon.

Mu kwezi gushize, abahanga mu bugenge bakora ubushakashatsi bwitwa LHBc muri Large Hadron Collider bavuze ko ibi byagaragaye bishobora kuganisha ku duce dutoya dushya (particles) n’ingufu nshya.

Spiral galaxy

Hari byinshi mu bigize isanzure muntu kugeza ubu atarasobanukirwa, iyi ni ishusho ya Spiral galaxy

Dr Mitesh Patel, wo muri Imperial College London, wari muri uwo mushinga ati: “Ubu isiganwa riri ku kugerageza gukora ubushakashatsi butanga icyemezo ko iki ari ikintu gishya koko. Ibi bizatanga ibindi bipimo n’andi makuru.”

Prof Allanach we, izi ngufu zishobora kuba ari iza gatanu, yazihaye amazina nka; “flavour force” na “B minus L2”

Uretse ingufu dusanzwe tuzi za rukuruzi na electromagnetism (ari nazo dukesha amashanyarazi na magnetism), ingufu zikomeye n’ingufu zoroheje zigenga imyifatire y’uduce duto cyane tugize ibintu.

Izindi ngufu za gatanu zishobora gusobanura bimwe mu bibazo bikomeye ku isanzure abahanga muri siyansi bibajije mu myaka ya vuba.

Urugero, kubona ko kwaguka kw’isanzure kuri kwihuta byitiriwe phenomenon itazwi neza yiswe ‘ingufu z’umwijima’. Ariko abashakashatsi bamwe na mbere bari baracyetse bishoboka ko ari gihamya y’ingufu za gatanu.

Dr Maggie Aderin-Pocock ukora ikiganiro Sky at Night cya BBC agira ati: “Ni ibintu bisa n’ibirenze ibitekerezo. Bishobora guhindura ubugenge guhera ku mutwe. Dufite ibintu byinshi by’amayobera bitarasobanuka. Ibi rero bishobora gutanga ibisubizo by’ingenzi kuri ayo mayobera.”

SRC: BBC

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