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Zambia: Kenneth Kaunda yapfuye

Kenneth Kaunda yari umwe mu batangije Africa nshya, ubwo ibihugu byikizaga ubukoloni bikagira ubwigenge.

Umugabo w’ubumuntu bukomeye, yashimwaga nk’umwe mu bavuguruye Africa nubwo bwose mbere yabanje kwanga demokarasi y’amashyaka menshi.

Nk’umuntu uharanira ubumwe bwa Africa, yatangije kubaka Zambia nshya, yigenga mu kugena umubano wayo n’amahanga.

Ariko imicungire mibi y’ubukungu yatumye rubanda imureba nabi, maze mu matora yo mu 1991 ntiyongera gutorwa.

Kenneth David Kaunda yavutse tariki 28/04/1924 ku misiyoni iri hafi y’umupaka w’icyitwaga Rodeziya ya Ruguru na Congo.

Se, umunyedini wabitorewe, yapfuye mu gihe yari akiri umwana, asiga umuryango we mu ngorane z’imibereho.

Ariko ubuhanga bwa Kaunda mu mashuri bwamugejeje mu ishuri rya mbere ryisumbuye ryashinzwe muri Roseziya ya Ruguru, nyuma aba umwalimu.

Kenneth Kaunda

Akazi ke kamugejeje mu ntara ya Copperbelt region, no muri Rodeziya Yepfo -Zimbabwe ubu, aho yarihuye no gutegeka no kuba hejuru y’abandi kw’abazungu.

Kimwe mu bikorwa bye bya mbere bya politiki cyabaye kuba umuntu utarya inyama, mu kwamagana politiki y’uko abirabura bagurira inyama ku idirishya ryabo.

Mu 1953 yabaye umunyamabanga mukuru wa Northern Rhodesian African National Congress ariko iyi yananiwe gushyira hamwe abirabura b’Abanyafurika mu kurwanya ubutegetsi bw’abazungu muri Rhodeziya na Nyasaland.

Hashize imyaka ibiri, yarafunzwe, akoreshwa imirimo, aregwa gukwirakwiza inyandiko abategetsi bavuze ko zigumura.

Abonye ko ishyaka yarimo ryananiwe gufata umurongo ukomeye mu guharanira uburenganzira bw’abirabura, Kaunda yashinze irye bwite, Zambian African National Congress.

Mu mwaka umwe gusa ryari riciwe na Kaunda asubizwa muri gereza. Kumufunga byamuhinduye umuhezanguni.

Byageze mu 1960 ari umukuru w’ishyaka rishya United National Independence Party (Unip), maze atewe imbaraga no kujya gusura Martin Luther King muri Amerika, agarutse atangiza imigumuko yarimo gufunga imihanga no gutwika inzu zimwe.

Martin Luther King & Kenneth Kaunda mu 1960

Kaunda yari yarinjiwe cyane na politiki za Martin Luther King

Kaunda niwe ishyaka UNIP ryatanze nk’umukandida mu matora yo mu 1962 yagejeje ku butegetsi bitoroshye ihuriro ryarimo ishyaka African National Congress (ANC).

Ihuriro rya Rodeziya na Nyasaland ryaje gusenywa mu mpera za 1963, hashize ukwezi kumwe, Kaunda atorwa nka minisitiri w’intebe wa Rodeziya ya Ruguru. Iki gihugu cyongeye kwitwa Zambia, kibona ubwigenge mu kwa 10/1964, Kaunda aba perezida wa mbere.

Yatangiranye amahirwe yo kuboyobora igihugu gifite amahirwe mu bukungu kurusha ibindi bituranye ariko gifite abaturage bacye cyane bize ibijyanye n’ubutegetsi.

Ubutegetsi bwe kandi bwabangamiwe cyane no kuba Ian Smith yaratangaje ko Rodeziya y’Epfo -umuturanyi – nayo ibaye igihugu cyigenga.

Abatavugarumwe na we

Politiki y’Ubwongereza y’ibihano ku bihugu byabwikuyeho yahungabanyije ubukungu bwa Zambia.

Muri ibyo bibazo, Kaunda yagowe no gukomeza kwerekana ko ashaka amavugurura y’ubukungu n’imibereho mu gihugu cye.

Mu 1969, ku kiguzi gikomeye, ibirombe by’umuringa (copper) yabigize ibya leta, byatangaga 90% by’imari yinjizwa na leta ivuye hanze. Ariko igiciro cy’umuringa cyaraguye, ibiciro by’ibitoro biva hanze biratumbagira, ubukungu bwacumbagiraga burazamba.

Mu gihe cy’ubwigenge Zambia yari kimwe mu bihugu bikize cyane muri Africa yo munsi ya Sahara, ariko kugeza mu 1991 yari ifite umwenda wa miliyari $8.

Kaunda ntiyagendaga buhoro mu gufata ibyemezo bikomeye ku batavugarumwe nawe. Mu 1972 yatangaje leta y’ishyaka rimwe, ibintu yadohotseho bigeze mu 1991, ubwo habagaho amatora rusange.

Rimwe yagize ati: “Byari kuba akaga kuri Zambia iyo tugira amashyaka menshi, kuko ayo mashyaka yari gukoreshwa n’abarwanya Zambia mu rugamba rwo kwigenga.”

Kuzamuka mu mahoro

Nk’uwari ukuriye ihuriro ry’ibihugu bitandatu bya mbere byiyemeje kurwanya apartheid, Kaunda yabanje mbere na mbere guhangana na Ian Smith muri Rodeziya hanyuma no guhangana n’ubutegetsi muri Africa y’Epfo.

Ariko ku rundi ruhande, akomeza gukora ngo yumvikane na Rodeziya, ndetse akagirana inama n’abategetse Africa y’Epfo John Vorster, PW Botha na FW de Klerk.

Yabaye minisitiri w'intebe wa mbere w'igihugu gishya cya Rodeziya ya ruguru, aha yariho agenzura abapolisi

Yabaye minisitiri w’intebe wa mbere w’igihugu gishya cya Rodeziya ya ruguru, aha yariho agenzura abapolisi

Yakiriye abanyapolitiki bahunze Africa y’Epfo, ndetse yashwanye by’umwihariko n’uwari minisitiri w’intebe w’Ubwongereza Margaret Thatcher kuko uyu yarwanyije ibihano byafatiye ubutegetsi bwa apartheid.

Ibi byashyize mu kaga ahazaza h’umuryango wa Commonwealth.

Mu ruhando rushya rwa politiki muri Africa yari mu boroshya, agaha agaciro amoko yose, kandi buri gihe akizera iterambere mu mahoro ryaha umwanya abazungu b’Abanyafurika kimwe n’abirabura.

Ariko kandi, yakomeje gushyigikira politiki ya perezida wa Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe ku butaka, politiki yatumye abahinzi b’abazungu birukanwa mu gihugu, bigatera kugwa k’ubukungu.

Yagize ati: “Nahoze mbivuga kuva cyera, rwose mwihindura Robert Mugabe sekibi. Ntabwo mvuze ko uburyo ari gukoresha ari bwo, ariko yari ku gitutu gikomeye.”

Kwigizwayo

Intege nke zatangiye kuboneka ku butegetsi bwa Kaunda mu myaka ya nyuma ya 1980. Havuzwe amakuru yo gushaka kumuhirika, bituma haba umukwabu wa nijoro henshi mu gihugu.

Mu myaka 10 yakurikiyeho, havuzwe izindi nshuro ebyiri zo kugerageza kumuhirika. Iya nyuma muri izi, mu mpeshyi ya 1990, yakurikiwe n’imyigaragambyo mu murwa mukuru Lusaka no muri Copper region, kubera ukwikanyiza kwa leta. Abantu barenga 20 barapfuye mu minsi itatu y’imyigaragambyo, abashinzwe umutekano batera kuri Kaminuza ya Zambia barayifunga ngo bahoshe imyigaragambyo.

Kaunda yakomeje kujya ku gitutu imbere muri Zambia no hanze ku isi ngo afungurire demokarasi nyayo. Amaherezo yaremeye, yemeza amatora yabaye tariki 31/10/1991.

Kuva kwiyamamaza bitangira, byahise biboneka ko ari mu kaga, nta gutungurana kwabayeho ubwo abatora bamwigijeyo bagatora ishyaka rya Movement for Multi-Party Democracy, rikuriwe na Frederick Chiluba.

Ariko yari agifite ijambo muri Zambia ndetse na leta nshya imubona nk’ikibazo.

Mu 1997 Kaunda yarafashwe, ashinjwa ubugambanyi, nubwo iyi leta nshya yaje kumworohera kubera igitutu cy’amahanga.

Ikindi gikorwa cyo kumwambura ubwenegihugu cyaje kuburizwamo n’inkiko.

Kaunda yahinduye umurongo ashyira imbaraga mu kurwanya SIDA, yabaye umutegetsi wa mbere muri Africa wemeje ko umwe mu bahungu be, Masuzyo, yishwe na SIDA.

Nk’umwanditsi w’umuhanga, yanditse ibitabo bitandukanye asobanura ingengabitekerezo ye ku gushyira hamwe kwa Africa, yaje no kwemerwa inagenderwaho n’abandi bategetsi nka Kwame Nkrumah muri Ghana na Julius Nyerere muri Tanzania.

President Kenneth Kaunda na PW Botha

Yakoranye n’abategetsi ba Africa y’Epfo mu kubona igisubizo ku kibazo n’umuturanyi we Rodeziya, aha Kaunda yari kumwe na Perezida PW Botha

Uretse politiki, Kaunda yari umubyinnyi,umuhanzi n’umucuranzi wa guitar, yahimbye indirimbo z’ubwigenge yacurangaga ari kuzenguruka igihugu ahamagarira rubanda kurwanya ubutegetsi bwa gikoloni.

Muri rusange, Kaunda yabashije gushyira hamwe Zambia n’amoko ayituye, ibyananiye ibindi bihugu byinshi bishya byari bikibona ubwigenge muri Africa, yakoresheje intero ye yagiraga iti: “One Zambia, One Nation”.

Ariko politiki ze z’ubukungu zahinduye Zambia – igihugu cyari gifite amahirwe yo gukizwa n’umutungo kamere – iba igihugu aho ubukene bwakomeje kwiganza n’ikizere cyo kuramba kiri mu biri hasi cyane ku isi.

SRC:BBC

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