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Kureka isukari ni byiza ku buzima, ariko hari ingaruka bishobora gutera

Birazwi ko kugira isukari nyinshi mu ifunguro ryawe ari bibi ku buzima, ariko kuyigabanya na byo bishobora kugorana, by’umwihariko kuko bishobora guteza ibimenyetso bitari byiza.

Bishobora kugutangaza kumenya ko gufata isukari (nibura mu Bwongereza no mu bindi bihugu bikize) mu by’ukuri byakomeje kugabanuka mu myaka irenga 10 ishize.

Ibi bishobora kuba birimo guterwa n’impamvu nyinshi, nk’impinduka mu mibereho no mu byo abantu bakunda, mu gihe mu myaka 10 ishize hakomeje kwiyongera indyo zirimo isukari nkeya.

Kurushaho gusobanukirwa ibyago biterwa no kurya isukari y’umurengera, na byo bishobora kuba ari imwe mu mpamvu y’uku kugabanuka kw’abarya isukari.

Kugabanya ingano y’isukari umuntu afata, bifite inyungu ku buzima, zirimo no kugabanuka kw’ibitera imbaraga (calories), bikaba bishobora gutuma umuntu agabanya ibiro.

Ariko rimwe na rimwe abantu bavuga ko bagize ingaruka iyo bagabanyije isukari bafata. Kuribwa umutwe, kugira umunaniro cyangwa kumva utameze neza mu mubiri, akenshi bibaho by’igihe gito, ni bimwe mu bimenyetso bagira.

Impamvu itera izi ngaruka, kuri ubu ntabwo izwi neza. Ariko byashoboka ko ibi bimenyetso biterwa n’ukuntu ubwonko bwifata iyo buhuye n’ibiribwa birimo isukari – n’uburyo buhita bukoramo (rewarding stimulus).

Ibiribwa byo mu bwoko bw’ibinyamasukari (carbohydrates) bibamo amoko menshi – arimo nk’amasukari ashobora kuboneka mu biribwa byinshi, nk’iyo mu mbuto (ivyamwa mu Kirundi) izwi nka fructose, na lactose yo mu mata. Isukari isanzwe yo ku meza  izwi nka sucrose/saccharose iboneka mu bisheke, muri betterave à sucre (sugar beet) n’ahandi, ndetse n’isukari ya glucose na fructose iri mu by’ingenzi bigize ubuki.

Nubwo isukari ikoreshwa muri byinshi mu biribwa turya, kurya isukari bikomeje kugabanuka muri Amerika n'i Burayi

Nubwo isukari ikoreshwa muri byinshi mu biribwa turya, kurya isukari bikomeje kugabanuka muri Amerika n’i Burayi

Mu gihe gutunganya ibiribwa ku bwinshi bimaze kumenyerwa, isukari ya saccharose n’andi masukari ubu bisigaye byongerwa mu biribwa mu kubyongerera uburyohe. Usibye kongerera icyanga ibiribwa no kuryoherwa n’ibiribwa birimo isukari nyinshi, isukari ifite ingaruka zikomeye ku bwonko.

Izo ngaruka zirakomeye cyane kuburyo byateje n’impaka niba umuntu ashobora kugirwa “imbata” n’isukari – nubwo ibi bigikorwaho ubushakashatsi.

Saccharose ituma habaho kumva uburyohe mu kanwa, igatuma nyuma mu bwonko hasohoka ikinyabutabire cyitwa dopamine.

Iyi dopamine ifasha imitsi yo mu bwonko guhererekanya ubutumwa. Iyo ubwonko buhuye n’ibirimo ibiribwa birimo isukari, buhita busohora iyi dopamine, ari yo mpamvu ikunze kwitwa ikinyabutabire cy’igihembo (“reward” chemical).

Ibikorwa na dopamine ahanini biboneka mu gice cy’ubwonko kigira uruhare mu byishimo. Aho ni ho hava uko twitwara – bivuze ko bituma dusubiramo imyitwarire ituma dopamine isohoka. Dopamine ishobora kutuyobora gushaka ibiribwa, nk’ibiryo bicuruzwa bihiye (junk food).

Inyigo zakozwe ku nyamaswa no ku bantu zagaragaje uburyo bukomeye isukari ituma habaho impinduka mu mikorere y’ubwonko.

Zagaragaje ko kurya ibirimo isukari nyinshi cyane, birenze na cocaine mu gutuma ubwonko bugira ibyo busohora imbere muri bwo.

Isukari ituma ibyo bibaho haba iriwe mu kanwa cyangwa itewe mu maraso, nkuko byagaragajwe n’ubushakashatsi ku mbeba. Ibi bivuze ko ingaruka zayo zidashingiye ku cyanga cyayo cyo kuryohera.

Mu mbeba, hari gihamya ikomeye ko kurya isukari yo mu bwoko bwa saccharose, mu by’ukuri bishobora guhindura imiterere y’ubwonko ikoreshwa na dopamine, ndetse no guhindura uko butunganya amarangamutima no guhindura imyitwarire mu nyamaswa no mu bantu.

Biragaragara ko isukari ishobora kugira ingaruka ikomeye kuri twe. Ni yo mpamvu rero bidatangaje kugirwaho ingaruka mbi iyo turiye isukari nkeya cyangwa tukayikura mu ndyo yacu burundu.

Ni muri icyo cyiciro cy’intangiriro “cyo kuva ku isukari” aho ibimenyetso byo mu mutwe no ku mubiri byagaragaye – harimo kugira agahinda gakabije, guhangayika, kugira amazinda (kudatekereza neza) no gushaka kurya cyane, hamwe no kurwara umutwe, kugira umunaniro n’isereri.

Ibi bivuze ko kureka isukari bishobora kuba bibi, haba ku buzima bwo mu mutwe no ku mubiri, bishobora gutuma bigora bamwe gukomeza gukurikiza indyo bahinduye.

Isukari ya saccharose yo ku meza iboneka nko mu bisheke no muri betterave à sucre (sugar beet)

Isukari ya saccharose yo ku meza iboneka nko mu bisheke no muri betterave à sucre (sugar beet)

Ishingiro ry’ibi bimenyetso ntabwo ririgwaho mu buryo bwimbitse (busesuye), ariko bishoboka ko hari isano bifitanye n’ibisohorwa n’ubwonko.

Nubwo igitekerezo cyo “kuba imbata y’isukari” kitavugwaho rumwe, gihamya yo mu mbeba yagaragaje ko cyo kimwe n’ibindi abantu bagirwa imbata na byo, isukari na yo ishobora gutuma abantu bagira irari ryo kurya birenze urugero no guhangayikishwa no kubireka.

Ubundi bushakashatsi bwakorewe ku nyamaswa bwagaragaje ingaruka zo kuba imbata y’isukari, kuyivaho no kumererwa nabi mu buzima, zisa n’ingaruka zitewe no gufata ku biyobyabwenge.

Ariko bwinshi mu bushakashatsi bwakozwe kuri iyi ngingo ni ubwakorewe ku nyamaswa, rero kuri ubu biragoye kuvuga niba ari na ko bimeze ku bantu.

Imikorere y’ubwonko bwa muntu yagumye kuba imwe ntiyahindurwa n’imihindagurikire ya muntu (evolution) – kandi birashoboka ko ari na ko bimeze ku mikorere y’ubwonko bw’ibindi binyabuzima byinshi.

Ibi bivuze ko ingaruka ku buzima zitewe no kureka isukari zigaragara mu nyamaswa zishobora ku kigero runaka kugaragara no ku bantu kuko ubwonko bwacu hari imikorere buhuriyeho.

Impinduka mu buryo ibinyabutabire byo mu bwonko bigabuyemo (bigabanyijemo), ni nkaho rwose ari yo itera ibimenyetso byagaragajwe ku bantu bava ku isukari cyangwa bakayigabanya.

Hamwe no kugira uruhare mu gusubiranya aho isukari yavuye, dopamine inakora mu kugenzura imisemburo (hormones) no kugenzura ibijyanye n’isesemi no kuruka, ndetse n’umuhangayiko.

Iyo isukari ikuwe mu ndyo, guhita habaho kugabanuka mu mumaro wa dopamine mu bwonko birashoboka ko bigira ingaruka mu mikorere isanzwe y’ibice bitandukanye by’ubwonko, bisobanuye impamvu abantu bagaragaza ibi bimenyetso.

Nubwo ubushakashatsi ku bantu bareka isukari ari bucyeya, hari ubushakashatsi bumwe bwagaragaje gihamya y’ibimenyetso bivuye ku kuyireka ndetse no kuyirarikira cyane nyuma yuko isukari ikuwe mu ndyo y’urubyiruko rufite umubyibuho mwinshi n’ukabije.

Cyo kimwe no guhindura indyo uko ari ko kose, gukomeza kuguma kuri iyo mpinduka ni ingenzi. Niba ushaka kugabanya isukari mu ndyo yawe by’igihe kirekire, gushobora kubyubahiriza mu byumweru bicye bya mbere ni ingenzi.

Ariko ni na ngombwa kurizikana ko isukari atari “mbi” yo ubwayo – ko ahubwo ikwiye kuribwa mu rugero hamwe n’indyo iboneye (yujuje intungamubiri) ndetse bikanajyana no gukora imyitozo ngorongingo (siporo).

SRC:BBC

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