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Ubuzima

Kuramba birashoboka ariko hari ibyo ugomba kwitwararika

Abantu benshi bifuza kubaho igihe kirekire kandi neza, cyangwa se nibura kwirinda gucyenyuka no kubaho nabi.

Niba uri muri abo, ufite amahirwe. Mu myaka ya vuba ishize, ubushakashatsi bwageze ku iterambere mu kumva siyansi yo gusaza.

Ikibazo ni uguhindura ubumenyi, inama n’uburyo bwo kwifata bwatugirira akamaro.

Aha turahinyuza ibivugwa byuko kugira icyizere cyo kuramba ari ibintu by’inzozi zidashoboka, tukerekana ahubwo ko ari ibintu bishoboka bigaragazwa n’ubuhanga bwa siyansi.

1. Imirire n’uburyo bw’imibereho

Hari gihamya nyinshi zigaragaza inyungu zo gukora ibintu bibangamye cyane, nko kurya neza.

Ubushakashatsi bwakorewe ku matsinda manini y’abantu bugaragaza ko kugumana ibiro byawe ku gipimo kimwe, kutanywa itabi, kugabanya inzoga zikaba ku rugero ruringaniye no kurya nibura uduce dutanu tw’imbuto (ivyamwa mu Kirundi) n’imboga ku munsi, bishobora kongera icyizere cyo kubaho imyaka kuva kuri irindwi kugera kuri 14, ugereranyije n’umuntu unywa itabi, unywa inzoga nyinshi kandi ufite ibiro birengeje urugero.

Kugabanya biruseho ibitera imbaraga, bikagabanywaho nibura kimwe cya gatatu (1/3), bivugurura ubuzima bikanongera imibereho y’imbeba n’inguge, icya ngombwa ni uko zirya ibintu byiza, nubwo bigoye gusaba ibyo abantu, buri gihe baba bahatanye no kugirira amashyushyu ibiryo.

Kwiyiriza mu buryo bwa cyane ukarya gusa ku gihe runaka kidahinduka (nko kurya rimwe mu gihe cy’amasaha umunani cyangwa kwiyiriza iminsi ibiri buri cyumweru) bivugwa ko bigabanya ibyago by’indwara zifitanye isano n’imyaka ku bantu bageze mu cyiciro cy’imyaka yo hagati na hagati.

2. Gukora siporo

Ku rwego rw’isi, kudakora siporo ni impamvu itaziguye itera impfu zigera ku 10% by’impfu zose z’imburagihe ziterwa n’indwara karande, zirimo nk’indwara y’imiyoboro y’amaraso mu mutima, diyabete yo mu bwoko bwa kabiri ndetse na za kanseri zitandukanye.

Abatuye isi bose ejo baramutse bakoze siporo ihagije, ibi bishobora kuba byatuma hiyongera icyizere cyo kuramba mu buzima bwiza ho hafi umwaka umwe.

Ariko se ni iyihe ngano ihagije ya siporo?

Mu by’ukuri, gukora siporo nyinshi cyane ahubwo ni bibi ku buzima, atari gusa ku kwangirika kw’imitsi cyangwa mu bice by’aho amagufa ahurira.

Ishobora gukuraho ubwirinzi bw’umubiri no kongera ibyago by’indwara zo mu myanya y’ubuhumekero yo mu gice cyo hejuru cy’umubiri w’umuntu.

Iminota irenzeho gato 30 buri munsi ya siporo yo guhera ku gipimo kiringaniye ugenda uzamuka wongera imyitozo isaba imbaraga, iba ihagije kuri benshi. Iyo siporo ntituma gusa ukomera kurushaho kandi ufite umubiri wubakitse neza, ahubwo byaranagaragajwe ko igabanya kubabuka cyangwa kubyimba (inflammation) kubi ku buzima, ikanavugurura uburyo bwo kuba umuntu agira akanyamuneza muri we.

3. Gukangura ubwirinzi bw’umubiri

Uko umubiri wawe waba umeze kose cyangwa uko indyo yawe yaba imeze kose, ubwirinzi bw’umubiri wawe bugenda bugira intege nkeya uko ugenda uba mukuru mu myaka. Kugirwaho ingaruka n’inkingo no kutagira ubushobozi bwo kurwanya ubwandu bw’indwara, ni zimwe mu ngaruka ziterwa no kugabanuka kw’ubwirinzi bw’umubiri.

Buri kintu gitangira gucika intege iyo utangiye kuba mukuru, iyo igice cy’umubiri kizwi nka ‘thymus’ kiba mu muhogo gitangiye kwangirika.

Ibyo bisa nkaho ari bibi, ariko nanone birushaho kuba bibi iyo umenye ko muri ‘thymus’ ari ho hantu uturemangingo tuzwi nka ‘T cells’ twigira kurwanya ubwandu bw’indwara.

Ifungwa ry’aho hantu ho kwitoreza h’ingenzi gutyo, kuvuze ko utwo turemangingo tudashobora kwiga gutahura ubwandu bushya bw’indwara cyangwa kurwanya bya nyabyo kanseri ku bantu bakuze.

Ushobora gufasha, gacyeya, mu gukangura gutuma umubiri wawe ugira intungamubiri zihagije z’ingenzi, nk’intungamubiri A na D.

Ikirimo gukorwaho ubushakashatsi butanga icyizere kijyanye no kwiga ku butumwa umubiri wohereza butuma habaho uturemangingo tw’ubwirinzi, by’umwihariko akitwa IL-7.

Vuba aha dushobora kuba twagira ubushobozi bwo gukora imiti irimo ako karemangingo, ibishobora kongerera imbaraga ubwirinzi bw’umubiri ku bantu bakuze.

Ubundi buryo bujyanye no gukoresha ikinyabutabire cya spermidine (polyamine) cyunganira ibiribwa cyo gukangura uturemangingo tw’ubwirinzi kugira ngo tuvaneho imyanda (imicafu mu Kirundi) iri imbere mu mubiri, nka za poroteyine zangiritse. Ibyo bivugurura cyane ubwirinzi bw’umubiri bw’abantu bakuze.

4. Kwiyuburura kw’uturemangingo

Gusaza kw’uturemangingo (kuzwi nka senescence) ni igihe kibi, bituma mu mubiri wose haba kwangirika gukomeye bigatera no kubabuka n’indwara karande z’ubukana buri ku kigero cyo hasi, ibi urebye bigatera gusaza kw’umubiri.

Mu mwaka wa 2009, abahanga muri siyansi bagaragaje ko imbeba zifite imyaka yo hagati na hagati zarambaga cyane kandi zikabaho mu buzima bwiza kurushaho iyo baziteraga umuti wa rapamycin, ubuza kwiyongera kwa proteyine y’ingenzi yitwa mTOR, ifasha mu kugenzura uburyo uturemangingo twitwara ku ntungamubiri, ku guhangayika, ku misemburo (hormones) no ku kwangirika.

Mu byumba by’ubushakashatsi (laboratoires), imiti nka rapamycin ituma uturemangingo tw’umubiri turimo gusaza dusa kandi tukitwara nk’utukiri duto kurushaho.

Nubwo hakiri kare cyane ngo iyi miti ibe yakwandikirwa abantu muri rusange ngo bayikoreshe, haherutse gutangira irindi gerageza ryayo ku barwayi ngo hagenzurwe niba rapamycin ifite ubukana bworoheje ishobora mu by’ukuri gutinza gusaza ku bagabo.

5. Kwikuraho uturemangingo dushaje

Kwikuraho burundu uturemangingo dushaje ni indi nzira itanga icyizere.

Ubushakashatsi bukomeje kwiyongera bukorerwa ku mbeba hifashishijwe imiti mu kwica uturemangingo dushaje, izwi nka sénolytiques, bugaragaza ko hari ukwivugurura muri rusange kw’ubuzima kandi, kubera ko imbeba zidapfa, birangira zirambye kurushaho.

Kuvugurura uturemangingo dushaje binafasha abantu, nkuko byagaragajwe n’ubushakashatsi buto bwakorewe ku bantu barwaye indwara yo kwangirika kw’ibihaha igeze ku kigero cyo hejuru (izwi nka fibrose pulmonaire), bagaragaje ko hari icyahindutse cyiza muri rusange.

Ariko ibyo ni igice gito gusa cy’ibigaragara.

Indwara za diyabete n’umubyibuho ukabije, hamwe n’ubwandu butewe n’udukoko tumwe na tumwe, bishobora gutuma hirema umubare munini w’uturemangingo dushaje.

Utwo turemangingo dushobora no gutuma ibihaha birushaho kwibasirwa n’ubwandu bwa Covid, ituma turushaho gusaza.

Ni ingenzi kuvuga ko kwikuraho utwo turemangingo dushaje ku mbeba zikuze bizifasha kutibasirwa n’ubwandu bwa Covid.

Gusaza no kurwara ni ibintu bibiri bijyana. Abantu bakuze barushaho kwandura indwara zandura kubera ko ubwirinzi bw’umubiri wabo buba butangiye gutakaza imbaraga, mu gihe kurwara byongera gusaza (cyangwa kuba umukecuru) kw’uturemangingo.

Kuba rero gusaza no gusaza kw’uturemangingo bifitanye isano ya hafi n’indwara karande n’izandura ku bantu bakuze, kuvura uturemangingo dushaje bishobora kuvugurura ubuzima ku mpande zombi.

Ni ingenzi kuba bumwe muri ubwo buvuzi bushya bwaramaze gukorwaho amagerageza ku barwayi atanga icyizere, kandi birashoboka ko mu gihe cya vuba kiri imbere bushobora kutugeraho.

SRC:BBC 

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