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Utuntu n'utundi

Ukuri ku byabaye i Sodoma na Gomora kuragenda kumenyekana

Umunsi umwe, hashize imyaka igera ku 3,600, abaturage b’umujyi wa cyera wo mu burasirazuba bwo hagati, uyu munsi witwa Tall el-Hammam, bari mu buzima bwabo busanzwe batazi ko hari ibuye riri kubasatira rigendera ku muvuduko wa 61,000Km/h.

Ryambutse ikirere ryihonda aho batuye ritera umuriro watumbagiye kugera kuri 4Km uvuye ku butaka.

Guturika kwabayeho kwari gukomeye inshuro 1,000 kuruta guturika kwabaye i Hiroshima haterwa bombe kirimbuzi.

Abataragwiriwe n’icyo kibuye babibonye bahise bahuma. Ubushyuhe bw’umwuka bwahise birenga dogere celicius 2,000.

Ibintu byose byahise bigurumana, ibyuma byose birashonga. Urebye muri ako kanya umujyi wose wahindutse umuyonga.

Amasegonda macye nyuma yabwo, hakurikiyeho imitingito yanyeganyeje umujyi. Imitingito bikekwa ko yari ku gipimo kitigeze kiboneka mbere.

Mu bantu babarirwa ku 8,000 n’amatungo yabo byari muri uwo mujyi nta na kimwe cyarokotse. Imibiri yabo n’amagufa byahindutse ubushingwe kubera umuriro uteye ubwoba.

Hashize igihe cy’umunota umwe, muri 22Km mu burengerazuba bwa Tall el-Hammam, imiyaga ivuye kuri uko guturika yageze ku nzu y’ibitabo y’i Yeriko (Jericho). Inkuta zayo zirangirika ndetse umujyi nawo urasenyuka.

Ishusho y'ibyaba byarabaye kuri iyo mijyi

Ibyo byose byumvikana nk’amashusho ya filimi ya Hollywood. Ni gute tuzi ko koko ibyo byabaye aho hantu hafi y’Inyanja y’Umunyu (Dead Sea/Mer Morte) muri Jordania, kandi hashize imyaka ibihumbi?

Kubona ibisubizo byasabye imyaka 15 y’ubushakashatsi ku tuntu tudo cyane, bwakozwe n’abantu amagana.

Abahanga muri science barenga 100 bo muri Amerika, Canada na République tchèque bacukumbuye banasesengura ibintu byavanywe munsi y’ubutaka (ibisigaramatongo) aho hantu.

Mu minsi yashize abahanga 21 barimo inzobere mu bintu byo butaka, mu miterere y’ubutaka, mu bisigaramatongo, mu mabuye y’agaciro, mu mitingito, mu buvuzi, no mu mateka, basohoye raporo ihuriweho y’ibyo bagezeho.

Muri raporo yabo yasohotse muri Scientific Reports niho tuvana iyi shusho y’ibi byabaye icyo gihe.

Inkubi y’umuriro kuri uwo mujyi

Hashize imyaka, ubwo abahanga mu bisigaramatongo bariho biga ibisigazwa byo muri uwo mujyi, babonye igisigara kidasanzwe cy’ubunini bwa 1,5m cyahindutse amakara n’ivu.

Bahise babona ko byanze bikunze hari inkubi y’umuriro yigeze gutwika uyu mujyi, mu myaka myinshi cyane ishize. Icyo gisigara bakivanye munsi y’amatongo.

Nta muntu uzi neza neza ibyabaye, ariko icyo gisigara ntabwo cyatewe n’ikirunga, umutingito cyangwa intambara. Nta na kimwe muri ibyo gifite ubushobozi bwo gushongesha icyuma, cyangwa igicuzwe mu ibumba (ceramic).

Kugira ngo bamenye igishobora kuba cyarabaye, iryo tsinda ry’abashakashatsi ryakoresheje ubuhanga bwo kureba ibyabaye no kubihuza n’ibimenyetso, rikoresheje igikoresho cyitwa “calculateur d’impact en ligne”.

Iki gikoresho gifasha abashakashatsi kubona umubare w’ingaruka zavuye ku mitingito, cyangwa ku kundi guturika kirimbuzi kuzwi.

Icyo bahise babona kuri Tall el-Hammam cyasaga n’ibuye rito (astéroïde) rimeze nk’iryagushize ibiti hafi miliyoni 80 i Tunguska mu Burusiya mu 1908.

Ryasaga kandi n’ibuye rito ugereranyije n’ibuye rutura ry’umurambararo wa kilometero imwe ryatumye habaho gucika kw’inyamaswa rutura zizwi nka dinosaurs, ubu hashize imyaka igera kuri miliyoni 65.

Bari babonye impamvu ishobora kuba yarabiteye. Hari hasigaye kubona neza ibihamya by’icyabaye icyo gihe i Tall el-Hammam.

Kubona ‘diyama’ mu butaka

Ubu bushakashatsi bwabonye ibimenyetso byinshi kandi bitandukanye.

Ahantu hacukuwe munsi y’ubutaka, habonetse uduce tw’umucanga bita Quartz, tubaho gusa iyo habayeho ingufu z’igipimo kigera kuri giga-pascals eshanu (5).

Abashakashatsi bari hafi y'inkuta z'inzu za cyera zasenyutse

Abashakashatsi bari hafi y’inkuta z’inzu za cyera zasenyutse

Ha hantu bacukuye kandi hari ibyangiritse hari uduce duto cyane twa diamonoïdes, nk’uko izina ryatwo ribivuga natwo dukomeye nka diyama. Buri kamwe kari gato cyane munsi ya virus itera grippe.

Biboneka ko ibiti n’ibimera byo muri ako gace byahise bihindukamo uduce tumeze nka diayama kubera ubushyuhe bukomeye cyane n’umuriro w’inkekwe.

Ibipimo byakorewe mu ifuru (oven/fours) zo muri laboratoire byerekanye ko ibikorwa by’ububumbyi byari bukomeye n’amatafari y’i Tall el-Hammam bigaragaza ko byigeze gushonga ku bushyuhe burenze 1 500°C. Ubushyuhe bwashongesha imodoka ikaba umuyonga mu minota micye.

Aho hantu bakoreye ubushakashatsi kandi bahabonye utubumbe tw’ibintu byashonze duto kurusha uduce tw’umucanga turi mu kirere mu mwuka duhumeka.

Utwo tuntu bita ‘sphérules’ tugizwe n’icyuma n’umucanga byabaye umwuka byashongeshejwe n’ubushyuhe busanga 1,590°C.

Ishusho ya microscope y'udusate twinshi cyane mu duce tugeze quartz

Ishusho ya microscope y’udusate twinshi cyane mu duce tugeze quartz

Mu yandi magambo, ibyo babonye byashongeshejwe aho hantu birimo iridium ishonga kuri 2,466°C, platine ishonga kuri 1,768°C na silicate de zirconium ishonga kuri 1,540°C.

Uruhurirane rw’ibi bintu rwerekana kwiyongera cyane k’ubushyuhe muri uwo mujyi burenze ubushyuhe bwo kuruka kw’ikirunga, ibisasu kirimbuzi, cyangwa imiriro isanzwe yo mu mijyi.

Icyari gisigaye cyonyine cyo kurebwa cyari umutingito uvuye ku kwihonda.

Ibimenyetso babonye byasanga n’ibyabonetse ahazwi nka Tunguska mu Burusiya no mu muhora wa Chixulub, watewe na astéroïde yatumye za dinosaurs zicika.

Haracyari iyobera ku mpamvu yatumye uwo mujyi n’utundi duce turenga 100 hafi yawo bitongera guturwa mu binyejana byinshi byakurikiyeho.

Hasigaye ibikingi binini by’umunyu byikoze nyuma bigatuma imibereho aho idashoboka.

Aba bashakashatsi bavuga ko kugeza ubu nubwo batabihamya neza neza, ariko bibaza ko guturika kwatumye habaho guhinduka umwuka cyangwa kuzamuka hejuru kw’amazi arimo umunyu y’inyanja izwi nka Dead Sea/Mer Morte muri icyo kibaya.

Kubera uburozi bwari buhari nyuma y’ibyo, aho hantu ntituwe mu gihe kigera ku myaka 600, kugeza ubwo imvura nkeya cyane aho mu butayu yagiye ishongesha wa munyu.

Hari abarokotse uko guturika?

Inkuru mu magambo ku isenyuka ry’uwo mujyi zahererekanyijwe ibiragano nyuma y’ibindi kugeza ubwo yanditswe muri Bibiliya nk’amateka ya Sodoma.

Bibiliya isobanura gusenyuka kw’umujyi uri hafi y’Inyanja y’Umunyu aho: Amabuye n’umuriro byavuye mu kirere bigatwika umujyi, abawutuye bose bagapfa.

Byaba ari inkuru yasizwe n’abarokotse babibonye n’amaso?

Niba ari ko bimeze, gusenyuka kwa Tall el-Hammam kwaba ari ugusenyuka gushaje cyane kwa kabiri kw’ahantu hubatswe na muntu gutewe no guturika no kugwirwa n’ikivuye mu isanzure, nyuma y’umudugudu wa Abu Hureyra muri Syria, hashize imyaka isaga 12,800.

Ikintu cy’ingenzi, uku guturika i Tall el-Hammam gushobora kuba aricyo cyagocy’ubu bwoko cyanditswe mu nyandiko zivuga uko byagenze.

Biratangaje

Igiteye ubwoba, ni uko bishoka ko byanze bikunze atari bwo bwa nyuma ubuzima bwa muntu buhuye n’akaga nk’aka ko kugwirwa n’ikivuye mu isanzure.

Guturika nk’ukwabaye i Tunguska, cyangwa ukwabaye i Tall el-Hammam, bishobora gusenya imijyi cyangwa akarere kose, biteye impungenge zikomeye uyu munsi.

Muri Nzeri (ukwa cyenda) 2021, habonetse asteroids 26,000 na za cometes amagana kandi nini mu gihe gito. Imwe muri zo byanze bikunze izagongana n’uyu mubumbe. Miliyoni nyinshi zindi z’ibi bintu biri mu isanzure ntabwo ziraboneka.

Niba telescopes zo ku isi cyangwa ziri mu kirere zitabonye ibi bintu, isi ishobora kutaburirwa, kimwe n’abari batuye i Tall el-Hammam.

Iyi nkuru yanditswe ku bufatanye n’abashakashatsi:Phil Silvia, Allen West, Ted Bunch na Malcolm LeCompte yashyizwe mu kinyarwanda na BBC 

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