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Hamenyekanye umugambi wa Canada wo kwakira abimukira benshi

Canada igiye kugerageza kwakira abimukira mu kuziba icyuho mu bukungu bwayo cyasizwe n’abari kujya mu zabukuru bavutse mu gihe kizwi nka ‘baby boom’ (1946 – 1964) gusa buri wese ntashyigikiye uwo mugambi wo kuzana abantu benshi bavuye mu mahanga. 

Mu ntangiriro z’uku kwezi, leta ya Canada yatangaje umugambi wo kwinjiza buri mwaka abimukira 500,000 kugeza mu 2025, abimukira hafi miliyoni 1,5 bakazaza muri icyo gihugu mu myaka itatu iri imbere.

Uyu mugambi watuma Canada yakira hafi inshuro umunani z’abahabwa uburenganzira bwo kuba mu Bwongereza buri mwaka, n’inshuro enye kurusha umuturanyi wayo wo mu majyepfo, Amerika.

Ariko ikusanyabitekerezo riheruka ryerekanye ko hari abanyacanada batishimiye kwakira abo bantu bashya.

Canada iragerageza ibikomeye

Mu myaka myinshi, Canada yagerageje gukurura abantu bo kuhatura – yakira abimukira bahabwa uburenganzira bwa burundu bwo gutura ariko ntibabe abenegihugu kugira ngo abaturage n’ubukungu bikomeze kwiyongera.

Umwaka ushize, iki gihugu cyakiriye abahabwa uburenganzira bwo gutura 405,000 – umubare munini mu mateka yacyo.

Impamvu zirahari, mu buryo bumwe, ni imibare yoroshye. Kimwe n’ibihugu byinshi by’iburengerazuba, Canada ifite umubare mutoya w’abavuka n’umunini w’abarimo gusaza.

Icyo bisobanuye ni uko niba igihugu gishaka gukura, aho gushonga, kigomba kuzana abimukira.

Abimukira basanzwe aribo bagize igice kinini cyane cy’ubwiyongere bw’abakozi, kandi kugeza mu 2032 biteganyijwe ko aribo bazaba bagize ubwiyongere bwose bw’abatuye Canada, nk’uko leta yabitangaje.

Mu ntangiriro z’uyu mwaka, leta yatangaje ko kugeza mu 2025 yizeye kuzana abimukira bashya 500,000 ku mwaka, inyongera ya 21% urebye ku mibare ya 2021.

Ahantu hihariye ku isi

Uyu munsi, umwe ku banyacanada bane yaje muri iki gihugu nk’umwimukira, umubare munini mu bihugu bigize G7. Ugereranyije na Amerika izwi nk’ikibindi kirimo gushonga, aho 14% gusa aribo bimukira.

Ubwongereza nabwo bufite abaturage b’abimukira bagera kuri 14%.

Madeleine Sumption, ukuriye Migration Observatory muri Oxford University, avuga ko iyo mibare idasobanuye ko Ubwongereza buri inyuma mu kwakira abimukira, ahubwo Canada isa ‘n’iyihariye’.

Ubwongereza, ni ikirwa gito gifite abaturage bakubye kabiri aba Canada, gifite ubucucike buri hejuru, mu gihe Canada ifite abaturage barengaho miliyoni 38 gusa kandi ari kimwe mu bihugu binini cyane ku isi, gifite aho kwagukira.

Madeleine ati: “Muri rusange Ubwongereza nta mugambi bufite wo kongera abaturage nk’uko Canada yo ibyifuza.”

Geoffrey Cameron, umuhanga muri ‘political science’ muri McMaster University, avuga ko mu gihe ibihugu byinshi, nka Canada, byugarijwe n’urugero ruto rw’abavuka n’urunini rw’abasaza, kwakira abimukira gukozwe neza kwaba igisubizo.

Ati: “Imbogamizi yonyine ihari kuri ibyo bihugu byinshi ni ibyo abaturage batekereza.”

Muri Amerika, aho umubare w’abinjira muri icyo gihugu baciye ku mupaka w’amajyepfo wageze hejuru cyane kurusha ibindi bihe byose, hari impungenge zo kwakira abimukira benshi kurusha imirimo ihari.

Mbere y’uko Ubwongereza buva mu bumwe bw’Uburayi inkubiri y’abimukira bavuye mu burasirazuba bw’Uburayi bateje icyuka kibi muri icyo gihugu.

Ariko nyuma y’iyi myaka ishize, Madeleine Sumption avuga ko ibitekerezo bishyigikiye kwakira abimukira byazamutse muri rubanda, igice kimwe kuko abantu babona ko Ubwongereza ubu bugenzura abinjira kurusha uko byari bimeze mbere.

Hagati aho Canada, ifite amateka maremare yo gushyigikira cyane kwakira abimukira.

Geoffrey Cameron ati: “Ntekereza ko imwe mu mpamvu yabyo ari uko hari icyizere runaka ko kwakira abimukira bigenzurwa neza na leta kandi mu buryo buri mu nyungu za Canada.”

Gusa ibyo ntibisobanuye ko nta mpungenge zihari ku kwakira abimukira.

Mu myaka ya vuba, inkubiri y’abimukira ku mupaka wa Amerika yateye ikibazo, kandi ukuzamuka kw’ishyaka People’s Party of Canada ridashyigikiye abimukira byashyize iyi ngingo mu mpaka mu gihugu mbere y’amatora rusange ya 2019.

Ibice bitandukanye bya Canada bifite uko bibona ingingo yo kwakira abimukira.

Mu gihe leta yatangaje umugambi wayo udasanzwe wo kwakira abagera ku 500,000 ku mwaka, intara ya Quebec, yo ishyiraho umubare ntarengwa w’abo yakira, ivuga ko idashobora kurenza 50,000 ku mwaka.

Ibyo bisobanuye ko Quebec, ifite 23% by’abatuye Canada, yajya yakira 10% gusa by’abimukira baza muri Canada.

Umukuru w’intara ya Quebec, Francois Legault, yavuze ko atewe impungenge n’abimukira benshi bashobora guca intege Igifaransa muri iyi ntara.

Ati: “Kugeza ubu twakira 50,000 birakomeye guhagarika gusubira inyuma kw’Igifaransa.”

Mu gihe ari ukuri ko Canada ifite aho kwagukira, uduce tumwe ntitworohewe n’uwo muzigo. Imijyi ikomeye nka Toronto na Vancouver – aho 10% by’abatuye Canada baba – ifite ibibazo bikomeye mu miturire idahenze.

Mu ikusanyabitekerezo ku banyacanada 1,537 ryakozwe na Association of Canadian Studies, batatu kuri bane bavuze ko batewe impungenge n’uko umugambi mushya wa leta watera ibibazo ku miturire na serivisi zihabwa abaturage.

Hafi icya kabiri cyabo, 49%, bavuze ko iriya mibare leta ishaka iri hejuru cyane, mu gihe 31% bavuze ko iriya mibare ikwiriye.

Ubundi buryo Canada yihariye mu burengerazuba bw’isi ni uko ishimangira ku bimukira bazamura ubukungu – hafi icya kabiri cy’abahabwa uburenganzira bwo gutura yo bahabwa ikaze kubera ibyo bashoboye gukora, si ukubera gusanga imiryango.

Kugeza mu 2025, leta yizeye kugeza urwo rugero kuri 60%.

Ibi, igice kimwe ni ukubera umugambi wafashwe na Canada kuva mu myaka ya 1960 yo kwakira abimukira bafite ubuhanga n’imyuga bazi bakazanira iterambere igihugu.

Geoffrey Cameron yabwiye BBC ati: “Ibyo bitekerezo-shingiro nibyo ubutegetsi bukigenderaho n’uyu munsi”.

Ku isi, uwo ni umwihariko, nubwo Australia na New Zealand nabyo byashyizeho uburyo nk’ubu.

Mu Bwongereza, hejuru gato y’umwe kuri bane ku bahabwa uburenganzira bwo gutura babuhabwa mu mujyo nk’uriya w’icyo bazanye. Muri Amerika, 20% gusa bya green cards zitangwa hashingiwe ku mpamvu nka ziriya.

Ibi bihugu byombi byagaragaje ko nabyo bishaka kuzamura umubare w’abo byakira hashingiwe kucyo bazaniye ubukungu bwabyo, gusa itandukaniro kuri ibi bihugu byombi ni uko abimukira benshi baje muri ubwo buryo bagomba gufashwa n’ababahaye akazi.

Muri Canada, kuba wahabonye akazi byakongera amanota yo guhabwa uburenganzira bwo gutura, ariko akazi si ngombwa.

   Canada izagera ku ntego zayo?

Canada ntiyakira gusa abimukira ishingiye ku byo bashoboye kurusha ibindi bihugu, ahubwo inabirusha gutuza impunzi nyinshi, yakiriye impunzi 20,428 mu 2021.

Gusa mu gihe iki gihugu cyihaye intego zikomeye mu gihe kizaza, amateka yerekana ko buri gihe kitazigeraho. Mu 2021, Canada yari ifite intego yo kwakira impunzi 59,000 hafi inshuro eshatu kurusha abo yari yakiriye mbere.

Mu kiganiro na CBC, minisitiri ushinzwe abinjira n’abasohoka Sean Fraser yavuze ko batabigezeho kubera gufunga imipaka ya Canada n’ahandi ku isi bivuye kuri Covid

Kugeza mu 2023, Canada igamije gutuza impunzi 76,000.

Uburyo bwa Canada

@BBC

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